digital payments, payment systems, FinTech, financial innovation, Supreme Court

Yesterday, the Supreme Court ruled that credit card provider American Express’ long-standing policy of including anti-“steering” clauses in its contracts with merchants was not anti-competitive. Steering is the practice whereby merchants discourage customers from paying with comparably high-cost cards like Amex and to use Visa or Mastercard…

bank subsidies, federal reserve, liquidity, interest on reserves, interest on excess reserves

In his recent post exploring the welfare implications of the Fed paying interest on reserves, George Selgin observed that if banks failed to maintain optimal reserves, the problem was either incorrect remuneration of reserves themselves, or the Fed’s mispricing of short-term (intraday or overnight) credit. Regarding the latter,…