The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau has been controversial since its creation. As an executive agency enjoying Federal Reserve funding independent of the Congressional appropriations process—and run by a single director removable only for cause—the Bureau is unusual and possibly unconstitutional. In its first years of existence, the…

modern monetary theory, endogenous money, fractional reserve banking, money multiplier

Editor's Note: Since I've been harping on the ways in which Modern Monetary Theory misrepresents institutional realities, I thought it worthwhile to republish the following essay by occasional Alt-M contributor Julien Noizet, from his personal blog Spontaneous Finance. The essay originally appeared on December 17, 2013. Two…