The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau has been controversial since its creation. As an executive agency enjoying Federal Reserve funding independent of the Congressional appropriations process—and run by a single director removable only for cause—the Bureau is unusual and possibly unconstitutional. In its first years of existence, the…

credit unions, financial innovation, fintech, decentralization, disintermediation

Last week, I had the pleasure of addressing the Michigan Credit Union Economic Summit on the future of financial services. I discussed emergent themes in financial regulation as a result of new technologies, and their implications for the industry. Here are my remarks — I hope you…

Bitcoin, Bitcoin energy use, payments systems

The environmental impact of cryptocurrencies looms large among the many concerns voiced by sceptics. Earlier this year, Agustín Carstens, who runs the influential Bank for International Settlements, called Bitcoin “a combination of a bubble, a Ponzi scheme and an environmental disaster.” Carstens’ first two indictments have been…