ICOs, network effects, initial coin offerings, tokens, cryptocurrencies, sec, securities and exchange commission, utility token, bitcoin, blockchain, ICO

Those who follow cryptocurrencies will know that an initial coin offering (ICO) refers to the issuance of digital tokens to finance a blockchain-based venture. They will also know that the legal status of tokens is an ongoing discussion among market participants and regulators. ICOs have attracted policymakers’…

In 2014 the government of Ecuador, under then-President Rafael Correa, announced with great fanfare that the Ecuadorian Central Bank (BCE) would soon begin issuing an electronic money (dinero electrónico, or DE). Users would keep account balances on the central bank’s own balance sheet and transfer them using…